Nutrient ManagementNutrient Management Educational Area

NM130 - The Presidedress Soil Nitrate Test for Improving N Management in Corn
Bruce Erickson; Mike Groff; Sylvie Brouder
Nitrogen fertilizer is essential for profitable corn yields but it is also a major production cost and can contribute to environmental degradation. Recent studies have demonstrated that soil nitrate testing could improve the agronomic efficiency of fertilizer N applications and reduce the potential for water quality problems associated with N use on cropland in the eastern cornbelt. The pre-sidedress soil nitrate test (PSNT) can predict the amount of organic N that will be mineralized to plant available forms of N (ammonium and nitrate) during the growing season. Research conducted in humid regions of the US including Indiana suggests that the PSNT is effective for predicting whether corn will be responsive to N sidedressing.
NM210 - Concepts of Soil Fertility and Productivity (pdf)
Soil Fertility Manual Chapter 1
Bob Darst; Mike Stewart
Understanding the principles of soil fertility is vital to efficient crop production and environmental protection. There are 17 chemical elements known to be essential for plant growth. Soil texture and structure influence the amount of air and water growing plants can secure. Soil colloids are very small, negatively charged particles of minerals and organic matter. An element with an electrical charge is called an ion. Cations have positive charges; anions have negative charges. Cation exchange capacity (CEC) is an expression of the amount of a soil’s negative charge and the amount of cations it can hold. Soil organic matter has many important benefits. Other key factors influencing soil productivity include soil depth, surface slope, soil organisms, and nutrient balance. This is the pdf version.
NM210x - Concepts of Soil Fertility and Productivity
Terry Roberts
Understanding the principles of soil fertility is vital to efficient crop production and environmental protection. There are 17 chemical elements known to be essential for plant growth. Soil texture and structure influence the amount of air and water growing plants can secure. Soil colloids are very small, negatively charged particles of minerals and organic matter. An element with an electrical charge is called an ion. Cations have positive charges; anions have negative charges. Cation exchange capacity (CEC) is an expression of the amount of a soil’s negative charge and the amount of cations it can hold. Soil organic matter has many important benefits. Other key factors influencing soil productivity include soil depth, surface slope, soil organisms, and nutrient balance.
NM211 - Concepts of Soil Fertility and Productivity (slideshow)
Soil Fertility Manual Chapter 1
Bob Darst; Mike Stewart
Understanding the principles of soil fertility is vital to efficient crop production and environmental protection. There are 17 chemical elements known to be essential for plant growth. Soil texture and structure influence the amount of air and water growing plants can secure. Soil colloids are very small, negatively charged particles of minerals and organic matter. An element with an electrical charge is called an ion. Cations have positive charges; anions have negative charges. Cation exchange capacity (CEC) is an expression of the amount of a soil’s negative charge and the amount of cations it can hold. Soil organic matter has many important benefits. Other key factors influencing soil productivity include soil depth, surface slope, soil organisms, and nutrient balance.
NM212 - Concepts of Soil Fertility and Productivity (video)
Soil Fertility Manual Chapter 1
Bob Darst; Mike Stewart
Understanding the principles of soil fertility is vital to efficient crop production and environmental protection. There are 17 chemical elements known to be essential for plant growth. Soil texture and structure influence the amount of air and water growing plants can secure. Soil colloids are very small, negatively charged particles of minerals and organic matter. An element with an electrical charge is called an ion. Cations have positive charges; anions have negative charges. Cation exchange capacity (CEC) is an expression of the amount of a soil’s negative charge and the amount of cations it can hold. Soil organic matter has many important benefits. Other key factors influencing soil productivity include soil depth, surface slope, soil organisms, and nutrient balance.
NM216 - Fertilizer for Profits (pdf)
Soil Fertility Manual Chapter 10
Harold Reetz
Many advances in crop fertilization practices have been achieved in past decades and will continue as farmers seek the most profitable and efficient methods. Fertilizer accounts for a significant share of total crop yield. Higher yield and potential profit per acre are closely related. The benefits of higher yield goals also include environmental protection and higher profits. Surprisingly, the market price for crops or the cost of fertilizer inputs may affect optimum application rates very little. Increasing soil test levels to optimum for phosphorus (P), potassium (K), and some other nutrients makes good sense. Building and maintaining soil fertility has been shown to increase long-term profitability. Positive interactions of nitrogen (N), P, K, and other nutrients should not be overlooked. Higher yield levels maximize the profit potential. Site-specific nutrient management is becoming a useful approach in many areas. Other management factors such as liming, reduced tillage, and quality benefits of fertilization should not be overlooked for their contributions to profitable returns.
NM217 - Fertilizer for Profits (slideshow)
Soil Fertility Manual Chapter 10
Harold Reetz
Many advances in crop fertilization practices have been achieved in past decades and will continue as farmers seek the most profitable and efficient methods. Fertilizer accounts for a significant share of total crop yield. Higher yield and potential profit per acre are closely related. The benefits of higher yield goals also include environmental protection and higher profits. Surprisingly, the market price for crops or the cost of fertilizer inputs may affect optimum application rates very little. Increasing soil test levels to optimum for phosphorus (P), potassium (K), and some other nutrients makes good sense. Building and maintaining soil fertility has been shown to increase long-term profitability. Positive interactions of nitrogen (N), P, K, and other nutrients should not be overlooked. Higher yield levels maximize the profit potential. Site-specific nutrient management is becoming a useful approach in many areas. Other management factors such as liming, reduced tillage, and quality benefits of fertilization should not be overlooked for their contributions to profitable returns.
NM218 - Fertilizer for Profits (video)
Soil Fertility Manual Chapter 10
Harold Reetz
Many advances in crop fertilization practices have been achieved in past decades and will continue as farmers seek the most profitable and efficient methods. Fertilizer accounts for a significant share of total crop yield. Higher yield and potential profit per acre are closely related. The benefits of higher yield goals also include environmental protection and higher profits. Surprisingly, the market price for crops or the cost of fertilizer inputs may affect optimum application rates very little. Increasing soil test levels to optimum for phosphorus (P), potassium (K), and some other nutrients makes good sense. Building and maintaining soil fertility has been shown to increase long-term profitability. Positive interactions of nitrogen (N), P, K, and other nutrients should not be overlooked. Higher yield levels maximize the profit potential. Site-specific nutrient management is becoming a useful approach in many areas. Other management factors such as liming, reduced tillage, and quality benefits of fertilization should not be overlooked for their contributions to profitable returns.
NM220 - Soil pH and Liming (pdf)
Soil Fertility Manual Chapter 2
Cliff Snyder
Soil pH is an important characteristic defining relative acidity or basicity. Many factors influence soil pH, including parent material, precipitation, native vegetation, crops grown, soil depth, and nitrogen (N) fertilization. There are various methods of measuring soil pH and determining appropriate aglime requirements. When soil pH is too low (acidity is too high), various detrimental effects may depress crop growth. Desirable pH levels vary…some crops thrive in more acid conditions. The process and reactions by which aglime reduces pH are complex. Time and frequency of aglime applications are important considerations. Neutralizing value, degree of fineness, and reactivity are key considerations in quality of aglime. Placement of the liming material is also important. Several different materials can be used in liming to adjust soil acidity. Some soils in arid climates have high pHs which can affect their properties and influence productivity, thus requiring special management. This is the pdf version.
NM221 - Soil pH and Liming (slideshow)
Soil Fertility Manual Chapter 6
Cliff Snyder
Soil pH is an important characteristic defining relative acidity or basicity. Many factors influence soil pH, including parent material, precipitation, native vegetation, crops grown, soil depth, and nitrogen (N) fertilization. There are various methods of measuring soil pH and determining appropriate aglime requirements. When soil pH is too low (acidity is too high), various detrimental effects may depress crop growth. Desirable pH levels vary…some crops thrive in more acid conditions. The process and reactions by which aglime reduces pH are complex. Time and frequency of aglime applications are important considerations. Neutralizing value, degree of fineness, and reactivity are key considerations in quality of aglime. Placement of the liming material is also important. Several different materials can be used in liming to adjust soil acidity. Some soils in arid climates have high pHs which can affect their properties and influence productivity, thus requiring special management. This is the pdf version.
NM222 - Soil pH and Liming (video)
Soil Fertility Manual Chapter 2
Cliff Snyder
Soil pH is an important characteristic defining relative acidity or basicity. Many factors influence soil pH, including parent material, precipitation, native vegetation, crops grown, soil depth, and nitrogen (N) fertilization. There are various methods of measuring soil pH and determining appropriate aglime requirements. When soil pH is too low (acidity is too high), various detrimental effects may depress crop growth. Desirable pH levels vary…some crops thrive in more acid conditions. The process and reactions by which aglime reduces pH are complex. Time and frequency of aglime applications are important considerations. Neutralizing value, degree of fineness, and reactivity are key considerations in quality of aglime. Placement of the liming material is also important. Several different materials can be used in liming to adjust soil acidity. Some soils in arid climates have high pHs which can affect their properties and influence productivity, thus requiring special management. This is the pdf version.
NM230 - Nitrogen (pdf)
Soil Fertility Manual Chapter 3
Adrian Johnston
Nitrogen (N) is essential for plant growth and is a part of every living cell. It plays many roles in plants and is necessary for chlorophyll synthesis. Symptoms of N deficiency in plants usually include chlorosis or yellowing. Adequate N is important for water use efficiency. The amount of soil N in available form (inorganic) is very small, while a high proportion is unavailable (organic) N. Nitrates are readily available for crops, mobile in the soil, and can be lost through denitrification. Use of nitrification inhibitors or slow release forms of N can improve N use efficiency. Nitrogen fixation must occur before N can be used by plants. Harvested crops remove considerable amounts of N from the soil. Most forms of N tend to increase soil acidity. Many different N fertilizers are available, containing various forms and contents of N.
NM231 - Nitrogen (slideshow)
Soil Fertility Manual Chapter 3
Adrian Johnston
Nitrogen (N) is essential for plant growth and is a part of every living cell. It plays many roles in plants and is necessary for chlorophyll synthesis. Symptoms of N deficiency in plants usually include chlorosis or yellowing. Adequate N is important for water use efficiency. The amount of soil N in available form (inorganic) is very small, while a high proportion is unavailable (organic) N. Nitrates are readily available for crops, mobile in the soil, and can be lost through denitrification. Use of nitrification inhibitors or slow release forms of N can improve N use efficiency. Nitrogen fixation must occur before N can be used by plants. Harvested crops remove considerable amounts of N from the soil. Most forms of N tend to increase soil acidity. Many different N fertilizers are available, containing various forms and contents of N.
NM232 - Nitrogen (video)
Soil Fertility Manual Chapter 3
Adrian Johnston
Nitrogen (N) is essential for plant growth and is a part of every living cell. It plays many roles in plants and is necessary for chlorophyll synthesis. Symptoms of N deficiency in plants usually include chlorosis or yellowing. Adequate N is important for water use efficiency. The amount of soil N in available form (inorganic) is very small, while a high proportion is unavailable (organic) N. Nitrates are readily available for crops, mobile in the soil, and can be lost through denitrification. Use of nitrification inhibitors or slow release forms of N can improve N use efficiency. Nitrogen fixation must occur before N can be used by plants. Harvested crops remove considerable amounts of N from the soil. Most forms of N tend to increase soil acidity. Many different N fertilizers are available, containing various forms and contents of N.
NM236 - Nutrient Management and the Environment (pdf)
Soil Fertility Manual Chapter 11
Tom Bruulsema
Plant nutrients are vital to producing adequate food and fiber, but some can pose an environmental concern unless managed properly. Nitrogen (N) can be lost from the soil, resulting in both an economic and environmental risk. Phosphorus (P) also requires careful management to avoid undesirable effects to water bodies. Potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), sulfur (S), and micronutrients pose little or no threat to the environment and are important for efficient utilization of other nutrients. Management objectives should include balancing all production inputs at optimum levels and using site-specific soil and water conservation techniques. Properly developed nutrient management plans can help achieve crop production and environmental goals.
NM237 - Nutrient Management and the Environment (slideshow)
Soil Fertility Manual Chapter 11
Tom Bruulsema
Plant nutrients are vital to producing adequate food and fiber, but some can pose an environmental concern unless managed properly. Nitrogen (N) can be lost from the soil, resulting in both an economic and environmental risk. Phosphorus (P) also requires careful management to avoid undesirable effects to water bodies. Potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), sulfur (S), and micronutrients pose little or no threat to the environment and are important for efficient utilization of other nutrients. Management objectives should include balancing all production inputs at optimum levels and using site-specific soil and water conservation techniques. Properly developed nutrient management plans can help achieve crop production and environmental goals.
NM238 - Nutrient Management and the Environment (video)
Soil Fertility Manual Chapter 11
Tom Bruulsema
Plant nutrients are vital to producing adequate food and fiber, but some can pose an environmental concern unless managed properly. Nitrogen (N) can be lost from the soil, resulting in both an economic and environmental risk. Phosphorus (P) also requires careful management to avoid undesirable effects to water bodies. Potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), sulfur (S), and micronutrients pose little or no threat to the environment and are important for efficient utilization of other nutrients. Management objectives should include balancing all production inputs at optimum levels and using site-specific soil and water conservation techniques. Properly developed nutrient management plans can help achieve crop production and environmental goals.
NM240 - Phosphorus (pdf)
Soil Fertility Manual Chapter 4
T. Scott Murrell
Plants must have phosphorus (P) for normal growth and maturity. Phosphorus plays a role in photosynthesis, respiration, energy storage and transfer, cell division, cell enlargement, and several other processes in plants. Symptoms of deficiency may include stunted growth, reduced yield, and various other signs. Soil P comes largely from the weathering of apatite, a mineral containing P, calcium (Ca), and other elements. Phosphorus moves very little in most soils. Several factors affect P availability, including amount and type of clay, time of application, temperature, and other conditions. Placement of P fertilizer is an important consideration. Phosphate rock (PR) is the basic material used in all P fertilizer production. Understanding water solubility of various P fertilizers is important.
NM241 - Phosphorus (slides)
Soil Fertility Manual Chapter 4
T. Scott Murrell
Plants must have phosphorus (P) for normal growth and maturity. Phosphorus plays a role in photosynthesis, respiration, energy storage and transfer, cell division, cell enlargement, and several other processes in plants. Symptoms of deficiency may include stunted growth, reduced yield, and various other signs. Soil P comes largely from the weathering of apatite, a mineral containing P, calcium (Ca), and other elements. Phosphorus moves very little in most soils. Several factors affect P availability, including amount and type of clay, time of application, temperature, and other conditions. Placement of P fertilizer is an important consideration. Phosphate rock (PR) is the basic material used in all P fertilizer production. Understanding water solubility of various P fertilizers is important.
NM242 - Phosphorus (video)
Soil Fertility Manual Chapter 4
T. Scott Murrell
Plants must have phosphorus (P) for normal growth and maturity. Phosphorus plays a role in photosynthesis, respiration, energy storage and transfer, cell division, cell enlargement, and several other processes in plants. Symptoms of deficiency may include stunted growth, reduced yield, and various other signs. Soil P comes largely from the weathering of apatite, a mineral containing P, calcium (Ca), and other elements. Phosphorus moves very little in most soils. Several factors affect P availability, including amount and type of clay, time of application, temperature, and other conditions. Placement of P fertilizer is an important consideration. Phosphate rock (PR) is the basic material used in all P fertilizer production. Understanding water solubility of various P fertilizers is important.
NM250 - Potassium (pdf)
Soil Fertility Manual Chapter 5
Tom Bruulsema
Potassium (K) is an essential nutrient and is taken up in significant amounts by many crops. Potassium is vital to photosynthesis, protein synthesis, and many other functions in plants. When plants are deficient in K, they may grow slowly, symptoms may appear on leaves, stalks or stems may be weak, and disease resistance may be lowered. In the soil, K exists in three forms: unavailable, slowly available, and available. Unlike some other nutrients, K moves very little in the soil. The K in fertilizer takes on the ionic form (K+) when it dissolves. Many soil factors can affect K uptake by plants. Methods of applying K fertilizers range from banding to broadcast. Many different types and analyses of K fertilizers are available, originating from a wide range of sources.
NM251 - Potassium (slides)
Soil Fertility Manual Chapter 5
Tom Bruulsema
Plants must have phosphorus (P) for normal growth and maturity. Phosphorus plays a role in photosynthesis, respiration, energy storage and transfer, cell division, cell enlargement, and several other processes in plants. Symptoms of deficiency may include stunted growth, reduced yield, and various other signs. Soil P comes largely from the weathering of apatite, a mineral containing P, calcium (Ca), and other elements. Phosphorus moves very little in most soils. Several factors affect P availability, including amount and type of clay, time of application, temperature, and other conditions. Placement of P fertilizer is an important consideration. Phosphate rock (PR) is the basic material used in all P fertilizer production. Understanding water solubility of various P fertilizers is important.
NM252 - Potassium (video)
Soil Fertility Manual Chapter 5
Tom Bruulsema
Plants must have phosphorus (P) for normal growth and maturity. Phosphorus plays a role in photosynthesis, respiration, energy storage and transfer, cell division, cell enlargement, and several other processes in plants. Symptoms of deficiency may include stunted growth, reduced yield, and various other signs. Soil P comes largely from the weathering of apatite, a mineral containing P, calcium (Ca), and other elements. Phosphorus moves very little in most soils. Several factors affect P availability, including amount and type of clay, time of application, temperature, and other conditions. Placement of P fertilizer is an important consideration. Phosphate rock (PR) is the basic material used in all P fertilizer production. Understanding water solubility of various P fertilizers is important.
NM260 - The Secondary Nutrients (pdf)
Soil Fertility Manual Chapter 6
Cliff Snyder
The secondary nutrients…calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), and sulfur (S)…are as important to plant nutrition as the primary nutrients. Calcium stimulates root and leaf development, and affects uptake and activity of other nutrients. Deficiencies of Ca don’t usually occur in field conditions, but can appear in some situations. Magnesium is the central atom in the chlorophyll molecule, so it is actively involved in photosynthesis. The ratio of Mg to potassium (K) can be an important factor related to grass tetany. Sulfur has several key functions in plants, and the need for S is closely related to the amounts of nitrogen (N) available to crop plants. Deficiency symptoms may be similar to those of N, although S is not mobile in plants.
NM261 - The Secondary Nutrients (slideshow)
Soil Fertility Manual Chapter 6
Cliff Snyder
The secondary nutrients…calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), and sulfur (S)…are as important to plant nutrition as the primary nutrients. Calcium stimulates root and leaf development, and affects uptake and activity of other nutrients. Deficiencies of Ca don’t usually occur in field conditions, but can appear in some situations. Magnesium is the central atom in the chlorophyll molecule, so it is actively involved in photosynthesis. The ratio of Mg to potassium (K) can be an important factor related to grass tetany. Sulfur has several key functions in plants, and the need for S is closely related to the amounts of nitrogen (N) available to crop plants. Deficiency symptoms may be similar to those of N, although S is not mobile in plants.
NM262 - The Secondary Nutrients (video)
Soil Fertility Manual Chapter 6
Cliff Snyder
The secondary nutrients…calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), and sulfur (S)…are as important to plant nutrition as the primary nutrients. Calcium stimulates root and leaf development, and affects uptake and activity of other nutrients. Deficiencies of Ca don’t usually occur in field conditions, but can appear in some situations. Magnesium is the central atom in the chlorophyll molecule, so it is actively involved in photosynthesis. The ratio of Mg to potassium (K) can be an important factor related to grass tetany. Sulfur has several key functions in plants, and the need for S is closely related to the amounts of nitrogen (N) available to crop plants. Deficiency symptoms may be similar to those of N, although S is not mobile in plants.
NM270 - The Micronutrients (pdf)
Soil Fertility Manual Chapter 7
Mike Stewart
Eight of the essential plant nutrients are called micronutrients. While micronutrients are not miracle workers, deficiencies can cause serious consequences in crops if not prevented or corrected. Soil pH and relative amounts of micronutrients in soils are important factors in the availability of micronutrients. Included in this chapter are sections describing the functions, sources, deficiency symptoms, possible toxicities, and management considerations for the micronutrients: boron (B), chloride (Cl), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn).
NM271 - The Micronutrients (slideshow)
Soil Fertility Manual Chapter 7
Mike Stewart
Eight of the essential plant nutrients are called micronutrients. While micronutrients are not miracle workers, deficiencies can cause serious consequences in crops if not prevented or corrected. Soil pH and relative amounts of micronutrients in soils are important factors in the availability of micronutrients. Included in this chapter are sections describing the functions, sources, deficiency symptoms, possible toxicities, and management considerations for the micronutrients: boron (B), chloride (Cl), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn).
NM272 - The Micronutrients (video)
Soil Fertility Manual Chapter 7
Mike Stewart
Eight of the essential plant nutrients are called micronutrients. While micronutrients are not miracle workers, deficiencies can cause serious consequences in crops if not prevented or corrected. Soil pH and relative amounts of micronutrients in soils are important factors in the availability of micronutrients. Included in this chapter are sections describing the functions, sources, deficiency symptoms, possible toxicities, and management considerations for the micronutrients: boron (B), chloride (Cl), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn).
NM280 - Soil Sampling (pdf)
Soil Fertility Manual Chapter 8
Harold Reetz
Taking a good soil sample is the first step in a successful nutrient management program. It is important to understand and follow proper procedures. Sampling intensity should usually be based on expected variability in the field. Various approaches to sampling pattern can be selected, depending on conditions. Tillage system is also an important consideration in sampling procedure.
NM281 - Soil Sampling (slideshow)
Soil Fertility Manual Chapter 8
Harold Reetz
Taking a good soil sample is the first step in a successful nutrient management program. It is important to understand and follow proper procedures. Sampling intensity should usually be based on expected variability in the field. Various approaches to sampling pattern can be selected, depending on conditions. Tillage system is also an important consideration in sampling procedure. This module will address sampling procedures, equipment, and strategies.
NM282 - Soil Sampling (video)
Soil Fertility Manual Chapter 8
Harold Reetz
Taking a good soil sample is the first step in a successful nutrient management program. It is important to understand and follow proper procedures. Sampling intensity should usually be based on expected variability in the field. Various approaches to sampling pattern can be selected, depending on conditions. Tillage system is also an important consideration in sampling procedure.
NM285 - Soil Sampling
Soil Fertility Manual Chapter 8
Harold Reetz
Taking a good soil sample is the first step in a successful nutrient management program. It is important to understand and follow proper procedures. Sampling intensity should usually be based on expected variability in the field. Various approaches to sampling pattern can be selected, depending on conditions. Tillage system is also an important consideration in sampling procedure. This module will address sampling procedures, equipment, and strategies.
NM290 - Soil Testing, Plant Analysis and Diagnostic Techniques (pdf)
Soil Fertility Manual Chapter 9
T. Scott Murrell
Soil testing is a valuable tool for modern production agriculture. The most benefit comes when soil test information is used with all other available information to help make recommendations for greater yields and profits. Plant analysis is usually considered as a tool to supplement soil testing, and data should be interpreted by a qualified individual. Quick field tissue tests can also be useful in some situations. While knowledge of deficiency symptoms is important, “hidden hunger” in crops can reduce yields and quality before visual signs appear. To properly diagnose fertility problems or other conditions, the entire crop environment…from root zone to tillage practices…should be considered.
NM291 - Soil Testing, Plant Analysis and Diagnostic Techniques (slideshow)
Soil Fertility Manual Chapter 9
T. Scott Murrell
Soil testing is a valuable tool for modern production agriculture. The most benefit comes when soil test information is used with all other available information to help make recommendations for greater yields and profits. Plant analysis is usually considered as a tool to supplement soil testing, and data should be interpreted by a qualified individual. Quick field tissue tests can also be useful in some situations. While knowledge of deficiency symptoms is important, “hidden hunger” in crops can reduce yields and quality before visual signs appear. To properly diagnose fertility problems or other conditions, the entire crop environment…from root zone to tillage practices…should be considered.
NM292 - Soil Testing, Plant Analysis and Diagnostic Techniques (video)
Soil Fertility Manual Chapter 9
T. Scott Murrell
Soil testing is a valuable tool for modern production agriculture. The most benefit comes when soil test information is used with all other available information to help make recommendations for greater yields and profits. Plant analysis is usually considered as a tool to supplement soil testing, and data should be interpreted by a qualified individual. Quick field tissue tests can also be useful in some situations. While knowledge of deficiency symptoms is important, “hidden hunger” in crops can reduce yields and quality before visual signs appear. To properly diagnose fertility problems or other conditions, the entire crop environment…from root zone to tillage practices…should be considered.
NM295 - Phosphorus Nutrition in Wheat
T. Scott Murrell; Adrian Johnston
This narrated slide set from IPNI addresses the major questions regarding phosphorus nutrition in wheat production. There are five sections, each one addresses a different question.